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In addition, a permafrost mantle stretches from the pole to latitudes of about 60°, meaning that ice water exists beneath much of the Martian surface.
Radar data and soil samples have confirmed the presence of shallow subsurface water at the middle latitudes as well.
Both the inner and outer cores are composed of iron and nickel, with trace amounts of lighter elements, and together, they add to a radius that is as large as Mars itself.
Current models of Mars’ interior suggest that its core region is roughly 1,794 ± 65 kilometers (1,115 ± 40 mi) in radius, and is composed primarily of iron and nickel with about 16-17% sulfur.
Scientists believe that these two satellites were once asteroids that were captured by the planet’s gravity.
The low albedo and the carboncaceous chondrite composition of both moons – which is similar to asteroids – supports this theory, and Phobos’ unstable orbit would seem to suggest a recent capture.
By comparison, Mars has a volume of 1.6318 x 10¹¹ km³ (163 billion cubic kilometers) which is the equivalent of 0.151 Earths.
Between this difference in size, mass, and volume, Mars’s surface gravity is 3.711 m/s², which works out to 37.6% of Earths (0.376 At its greatest distance from the Sun (aphelion), Mars orbits at a distance of approximately 249,200,000 million km (1.666 AU).
However, over the past few decades, scientists have come to learn a great deal about the history of Mars that has altered this view as well.
When it comes to the surfaces of Earth and Mars, things once again become a case of contrasts.
Naturally, it is the differences that are most apparent when comparing Blue Earth to the Red Planet – as the nicknames would suggest.
Mars, meanwhile, has a radius of approximately 3,396 km at its equator (3,376 km at its polar regions), which is the equivalent of roughly 0.53 Earths.
However, it’s mass is just 6.4185 x 10²³ kg, which is around 15% that of Earth’s., which works out 1,083 billion cubic kilometers.Unlike other planet’s in our Solar System, the vast majority of Earth is covered in liquid water, about 70% of the surface – or 361.132 million km² (139.43 million sq mi) to be exact.